Shifting from Traditional budget to Rolling budget, its impact on the Management Control System – Case Study Unilever Limited:
Budget is the quantitative expression given to a business plan or strategy for a well defined time period. It in general includes planned revenues and sales volumes, expenses and costs, cash flows, and liabilities (CIMA, 2005). Traditional budgeting adopts a structured approach and it can give accurate predictions. The traditional budgeting process consumes a lot of management resources, focuses mostly on the financials rather than on how strategy has to be executed, and it is also time consuming. As the focus of traditional budgeting is on the annual forecast, in most cases the financials are outdated (Bogsnes, 2008). As the business environment at present is volatile and dynamically changing, businesses require better ways to predict the future in order to survive, and remain competitive. Companies are increasingly shifting to rolling forecast, as using this process, the key business drivers can be forecast on a continuous basis. As through rolling forecast, planning can be done continuously even under intense competition and volatile business environments organizations can operate strategically, and thus gain competitive advantage (Garlapati & Durga, 2011). Continue reading
Confidentiality Case Study:
Confidentiality is the necessity of following the rules which prevent from the loss of information or prevent the third people from the access towards the important information. Confidentiality is a serious issue which can be observed from the point of view of different disciplines and branches of the human life. Confidentiality is met in politics, law enforcement, healthcare, education, business, science, etc. It is natural that everyone wants to keep important facts and data in secret and limit the access of the third people towards these facts and the term of confidentiality touches upon directly these matters. Speaking about business, confidentiality is understood as the behaviour which prevents rival companies from the access towards the data about the activity of the company, the sources of its income, the secrets and formulas of its production, its technologies, etc. Continue reading
Bad Parenting Case Study:
Bad parenting is the complex of the behavioural models which affects the process of the child’s bringing up negatively. The issue can be called quite a relevant one, because it is very difficult to take care about the child in the right way and develop its psychological and physical health, the process of its socialization successfully. The skill of parenting is developed slowly and one requires years to train this skill to the appropriate level. Bad parenting is often the disability to bring up the child according to the healthy and adequate models which can stimulate the child’s mental and physical development. Bad parenting is the result of poor knowledge about the child’s organism and psychology and lack of experience. The most common mistakes which are regarded as bad parenting are: abuse, lack of trust to the child, fear, strict discipline or shortage of discipline, etc. Continue reading
CDMA Case Study:
CDMA is the communication technology, most often radio communication, which is characterized with the channel of transmission which has the common bandwidth but different code modulation.
CDMA got its popularity and fame due to the cellular mobile communication and many people mistakenly think that this sort of mobile communication is the only one and CDMA is a monopolistic technology on the market. Radio systems have two primary resources – frequency and time, which create such systems as Frequency Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access.
CDMA uses the special codes for the identification of the connection and uses the whole spectrum of frequency and the whole time. The history of CDMA is quite long and dates back to 1935 when the first attempts to master this technology had been practised. CDMA is one of the standards of 3G communication and it is supposed to be reliable, effective and cheap. Continue reading
Early Marriage Case Study:
Early marriage is the marriage which is characterized with the involvement of children (under 18) into this process. The most common form of early marriage is between a mature man and a girl, who is under 18. The problem of child marriage has always existed in the human society but years ago it at least had its own purpose and explanation. Till the 19th century early marriages were quite popular all over the world because of the length of the human life. People lived less than nowadays and had to start the grownup live earlier, as a result the majority of girls got married at the age of 16. One of the most widespread reasons of child marriage was poverty. The family was not able to support all its children and the best decision was the marriage. Continue reading
Methamphetamine Case Study:
Methamphetamine is the related with amphetamine substance of crystal nature.
Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant with the extremely high level of addiction risk, so the substance is often understood like a serious drug. The drug was invented in 1919 in Japan and very soon it became popular all over the world as a stimulant. The most common profession which consumed methamphetamine in great amounts was the army. In 1938 methamphetamine was a common part of the soldier’s daily menu, especially of pilots and troopers. The biggest popularity of methamphetamine in the armed forces was observed during World War II among the German soldiers who received several dozes of the substance daily. It is natural that if the person takes drugs in such quantities, it is impossible for her to give them up. In 1960-ies methamphetamine was used for the treatment of psychological disorders and depression. Continue reading
Effective Management Case Study:
Effective management is the appropriate organization of the human activity in all its forms.
Effective management touches upon the individual, groups of people and big unities of people who cooperate for the common benefit. The most obvious issue related with management is the organization of the activity and labor force of public and private institutions of various types.
Naturally, every firm, office, store, school, fire brigade, etc requires appropriate and professional management in order to make the staff of these institutions fulfill their duties well and work for the common advantage and development of the organization. Most often management is associated with business and it is right, because there the activity of the manager or the leader is visible best of all. The successful manager is the person who is the professional in her occupation; she knows about her job everything and is able to share her experience with the novice employees. Continue reading
Missed Abortion Case Study:
Missed abortion is a spontaneous pathological termination of pregnancy during the period of 28 weeks of pregnancy, though in the World Health Organization missed abortion is limited to 22 weeks. During the case of the missed abortion the fetus, which is surrounded by the amniotic fluid, exfoliates from the uterine wall and is released from the uterine cavity under the womb’s muscle contraction. Among the most widespread reasons of miscarriage are underdevelopment, inflammation, tumours of the women genitals, the dysfunction of ovary, infections and parasitic diseases (for example, influenza, toxoplasmosis, etc.). Miscarriage can occur because of the incompatibility of the woman’s and her fetus’ blood; intoxication which occurs in the second half of pregnancy; the durable impact of the negative factors on the environment, such as ionizing radiation, toxic fumes, etc. Sometimes miscarriage occurs because of the psychological instability of the woman, who survived abortion some time ago and surgery on her womb. Continue reading
Conflict of Interest Case Study:
Conflict of interest is the term related with law and it is associated with the situation when one of the sides of the bargain can receive serious profit, while another side can lose money. Moreover, conflict of interest is the phenomenon which is characterized with the different expectations concerning the result of the contract and this phenomenon is always connected with the hidden “dirty” motives of the one side of the bargain.
Conflict of interest can occur in every sphere of the human life, in medicine, education, crime and law, politics, etc. There are physicists, lawyers, teachers, politicians who use their position for the solution of their own problems. For example, if the layer or judge has enough power, he can influence the decision of the court and state that the criminal is not guilty. Most often such decisions are connected with bribery and are associated with the evil intentions of people to make dirty illegal money. Continue reading
Case Study on International Accounting:
International accounting is the serious branch of accounting which analyzes and maintains the process of the financial, managerial and other types of accounting on the international level.
Nowadays, due to the process of globalization business can not exist simply on the territory of the single country. Every firm tries to develop intensively and broaden its activity behind the boarders of the one country facilitating international economic relations. Business can not exist without the well-developed sphere of accounting, because this discipline organizes the financial activity of the firm, calculates all its profits and expenditures, plays the role in the data analysis and decision making. When one speaks about international accounting, he means the organization of the production, taxation, the maintenance of the quality of the business relations, human resource management, employment, solution of various cultural barriers, evaluation of the cost of production, the analysis of the problems related with the supply chain, etc. Continue reading